Construction Methodology of Earthwork


This work shall consist of excavation, removal and satisfactory disposal of all materials necessary for the construction of roadways in accordance with requirements of MORT&H specifications and the lines, grades and cross-section shown in the drawing or as indicated by the Engineer.


  1. Excavator
  2. Dozer 
  3. Motor Grader
  4. Vibratory Roller
  5. Dumpers / Tractor Trolleys
  6. Auto Level
  7. Measuring Tape
  8. Water Tanker


  1. On completion of site clearance, the necessary ground survey shall be done in order to make the lines of toe excavation.
  2. These excavation works referred to herein shall be either pointing to the trench cutting at the existing ground level or this could be the case of excavation necessary to trim down the excessive earth masses so as to organize the bottom for pavement layers. Or else this may be the case of excavation necessary for the construction of side drains & waterways.
  3. This shall be followed further by laboratory tests with regards to the samples of soil material shall be collected as per IRC SP 19, IRC 36 and IRC 75. The excavated materials shall be classified by the Laboratory tests are (i.) Unsuitable, (ii.) Suitable for Embankment, (iii.) Suitable for Sub Grade (iv.) Ordinary Rock (v.) Hard Rock Excavation in soil,
    • Where ever unstable materials are encountered at Natural ground level or at formation level these shall be executed as per section 300 of MORT&H and it shall be replaced with suitable materials.
    • Excavation in hard rock shall be done with the help of excavators or other suitable machinery or blasting depending upon the stretches & quantum of work. Rock, when experiences in road excavation shall be removed up to formation level.
    • In rocky formation, surface regularity shall be corrected and level brought up to the specified elevation with the granular base material. It shall be laid and compacted as per specifications.
  4. Slopes in rock cutting shall be finished to uniform lines corresponding to slope lines shown on the drawing. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all loose pieces of rock on excavated slope surface which move when pierced by a crowbar shall be removed.
  5. Where necessary blasting, shall be carried out as per MORT&H clause 302.


    Fig. 1 – Earthwork for Roads

  6. Excavated earth shall either be required to be disposed of or stacked at the site. This shall be done as per the directions of Engineer. In case of disposal of materials to another place, the required number of tippers compatible with the capacity of excavator & the haulage shall be engaged to do the job.
  7. Excavation shall be done up to the depths as detailed in the drawing. However, the works in normal course shall conform to the lines, grades & slopes as specified in the drawing.
  8. While planning or executing excavations we will adequate precautions against causing of any water stagnation or soil erosion or water pollution.
  9. In the case of intercepting with the water table, water pumps shall be deployed immediately to pump out the excess water for working conditions. However, no delay shall be caused in this regard for obtaining further instructions from the safety of works and plant considerations.
  10. In case of excavations beside road edges necessary traffic management plan shall be mutually discussed with road owning authority before taking up excavation works.


Safety aides shall be mobilized in required numbers to take care of the safety of the work progress and of the adjoining traffic movement.

  1. Minimum of 2 flagmen with reflective vests and holding a red flag each shall be deployed to control the traffic, which may be affected by the lading operations.
  2. All locations adjacent to the existing road where excavation is in progress shall be provided with visible safety and road signs.
  3. No machines or equipment shall be permitted to remain o the existing road or shoulder unattended at all times unless it is properly protected and secured in a safe manner.
  4. The safety officer shall make frequent patrols along the highway to ensure that the safety equipment and signs are operational and signs are operational at all times.
  5. Signboards and safety plan shall be followed as per the safety manual.


Care will be taken to prevent spilling of material from the trucks during transportation.


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