Construction Methodology of Pipe Culvert

Pipe Culvert work shall consist of furnishing and providing plain and reinforced cement concrete pipes, of the type, diameter and length and length required at the locations as per drawing.


  1. Excavator
  2. Generator
  3. Tippers
  4. Concrete Batching Plant
  5. Transit Mixers
  6. Water tanker
  7. Shuttering Plates
  8. Crane with rope
  9. Plate and needle vibrators
  10. Survey kit etc.,
Pipe Culvert Plan

Fig. 01 – Pipe Culvert Plan

The above figure shows the general plan of the Pipe culvert.


Centerline Fixing

Firstly, The place where the culvert exists shall be located and the centre line shall be marked with the help of electronic theodolite.

The located culvert must be either perpendicular or with some skew to the road alignment according to the direction of the flow. for example, 30 degrees to the road alignment.

Setting Out

Reference points have to fix on both sides of the culvert in both traffic and normal to the traffic direction.

A temporary benchmark shall be located near the culvert. After that, it should be checked regularly w.r.t to the permanent benchmark.

The limits of excavation shall be marked on the original ground to the line and length as per drawing.

Original Ground Levels

The original ground level (hereinafter called the “OGL”) shall be taken on the centerline and either side of the centerline of the culvert location to the required width and length as per the drawing. However, the number of rows to be taken is depending on the width of the culvert.

OGL’s shall be taken throughout the length of the culvert including a flexible apron.

The length of the culvert varies from the culvert to the culvert depending on proposed road levels and bed levels of the channels.

Pipe Culvert Section

FIg. 02 – Pipe Culvert Section


Most importantly,  before starting excavation, proper barricading along with reflective marking with cautionary signboards shall be provided.

Dumpers or tippers will help in loading excavated material by removing it with help of an excavator to the required level. The excavated portion shall be cleaned off if any slush, and it should be dressed properly.

Sand Filling

Fine to coarse sand shall be laid to the required length, width and thickness. However, the sand should be compacted properly with plate vibrators.

Levelling Course

The shuttering shall be thoroughly cleaned, aligned and marked to the required thickness. Before the construction of the head wall, the PCC shall be hardened state. The transit mixer will transport concrete mix from batching plant to the site. After that, It shall be laid on the wet sand and compacted properly with plate vibrators.

Headwall concreting shall be done immovable with the levelling coarse.

Pipe Laying & Jointing

Firstly, the pipes shall be laid to the required line and length by means of a crane and wire rope. After that, the laying of pipes shall be started from one end and proceeded to the other end. Pipe jointing shall be done by means of providing gunny bags with cement slurry.

Above all, care shall be taken while placing the pipes in position.

Pedestal Concrete

After laying the pipes in position concrete mix shall be laid on both sides of the pipes along the length of the co=ulvert to confined the pipe in position.

Proper vibration shall be carried out throughout the concrete by means of a needle vibrator. Moreover, the size of the pedestal shall be provided as per the design drawing.

Head Wall

In short, After completion of pedestal concrete throughout the length, shuttering shall be aligned properly for the remaining headwall portion. After that, specified concrete shall be laid layer by layer with proper compaction.

In addition, curing shall be done for 14 days as per MORTH Specifications.

To sum up, Filter media should be laid behind the return walls and wing walls as per the specifications in the drawing. For the back filling, selected material should be laid behind the pipes to the top of the embankment as per the specifications and it should be compacted properly.


  1. Allows water from upstream to downstream.
  2. Serves as utility tunnels
  3. Serves as escape tunnels and Portals.
  4. Easy to install
  5. maintenance cost is minimum. Therefore, It is mostly used.

In conclusion, A culvert may act as a bridge for traffic to pass on it. most importantly, They are mostly found in a natural flow of water and serves the purpose of a bridge or a current flow controller. As a result, Based on factors like hydraulic, roadway height and other conditions, Culvert will be designed. Above all, this is the general procedure for the construction of a culvert.

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Also Read: What is Formwork (Centering & Shuttering) in construction?

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1 Response

  1. Thank you for sharing this detailed and informative article on the construction procedure of culverts. The step-by-step explanation, along with the illustrations, provides a clear understanding of the process involved. It’s evident that the article is well-structured and caters to both professionals in the field and those interested in gaining knowledge about culvert construction. Your emphasis on safety measures, proper alignment, and quality control reflects a commitment to ensuring the longevity and functionality of the culverts. Overall, a valuable resource for anyone looking to comprehend the intricacies of culvert construction.

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